- Beta-carotene alone may not be as useful as mixed carotenoids (and other healthful substances) found in fruits and vegetables.
- Synthetic beta-carotene may be less effective than natural beta-carotene.
- The participants in these studies were the wrong group of people (generally, smokers).
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2 Epstein KR. The role of carotenoids on the risk of lung cancer. Semin Oncol . 2003;30:86–93.
3 Hak AE, Stampfer MJ, Campos H, et al. Plasma carotenoids and tocopherols and risk of myocardial infarction in a low-risk population of US male physicians. Circulation . 2003;108:802–7. Epub 2003 Aug 04.
4 The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. N Engl J Med . 1994;330:1029–1035. 47.
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10 The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med . 1994;330:1029–1035.
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12 Rapola JM, Virtamo J, Haukka JK, et al. Effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of angina pectoris. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. JAMA . 1996;275:693–698.
13 Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E and beta carotene for age-related cataract and vision loss: AREDS report no. 9. Arch Ophthalmol . 2001;119:1439–1452.
14 Austin J, Singhal N, Voigt R et al. A community randomized controlled clinical trial of mixed carotenoids and micronutrient supplementation of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 May 24 [Epub ahead of print].
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 07/2012 -
- Update Date: 07/25/2012 -